In the 1920s, the first oil discovery in Seminole, Oklahoma, was made at a depth of approximately 4,000 feet. Currently, the world’s deepest oil well in Russia extends 49,000 feet into the earth’s surface. Deep exploration below existing production, complex overburden, or at the limits of geophysical resolution is critical for existing and emerging ventures. To meet these challenges, researchers and geoscientists are actively working to acquire better data and develop innovative methods to improve imaging. And in this episode, guest editors Chao Wang and Stephen Graf highlight the recent advances that improve success and extend capability in challenging deep environments.