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Numerical Modeling of Seismic Responses from Fractured Reservoirs by the Grid-characteristic Method

Vladimir Leviant, Igor Kvasov, and Igor Petrov

Numerical Modeling of Seismic Responses from Fractured Reservoirs by the Grid-characteristic Method

Using the direct seismic responses of fractures and fracture zones in productive formations to obtain information about their locations and characteristics is an essentially new and promising direction of investigation. Given the growing production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs, the basic understanding of seismic wave responses of natural and hydraulic fractures is urgently needed, and the ability to model those waves is a necessary first step toward detection and more accurate characterization of fractured reservoirs and through this process toward improved oil production. This book addresses the properties of seismic waves of fractured media by describing, modeling, and analyzing the various seismic wave responses from discrete fractured media, and it proposes a methodology for the direct detection of fractured reservoirs based on these analyses. Use of the grid-characteristic method to numerically model the waves allows for the inclusion of fundamental properties of real fractured reservoirs and fractured features in the analysis. Importantly, this method facilitates a highly accurate computation of wave propagation that accounts for the multiple discreteness of the medium. Of use to oil company geophysicists and geologists directly involved in interpretation of seismic data acquired from prospects of fractured reservoir development, this book also will be of interest to scientific workers in universities (particularly postgraduate students) and R&D departments of geophysical and oil companies.

Illustrated Seismic Processing Volume 1: Imaging

Stephen J. Hill and Andreas Rűger

Illustrated Seismic Processing Volume 1: Imaging

This book provides a foundation for understanding the vigorous and fascinating field of seismic processing. Written for the non-expert, this two-volume introductory text reveals the limitations and potential pitfalls of seismic data, prepares both seismic interpreters and acquisition specialists for working with seismic processing geophysicists, explains seismic processing operations as a series of solutions to problems, and demonstrates the dependence of a final interpretable seismic volume on its many seismic processing decisions. Although seismic processing is inherently mathematical, this text uses numerous illustrations and real data examples, providing an intuitive understanding of the seismic processing procedures, resorting to an algebra-based argument only on rare occasions. By starting with migration in the first volume and concluding with deconvolution in the second volume, this text presents seismic processing topics in a reversed order compared to a customary processing sequence. The reader will examine input requirements for algorithms and then be equipped to understand the processing flow algorithms themselves.

Understanding Signals: Basic waveform analysis from a geophysical perspective

Michael Burianyk

Understanding Signals: Basic waveform analysis from a geophysical perspective

Written for students as well as professionals who work with and support geophysicists, this book presents a simple and informal discussion of fundamental concepts which underlie the quantitative part of geophysical analysis and interpretation. These general concepts are applicable for an analytical approach to any phenomena that can be measured and recorded. With examples and figures created using Microsoft Excel®, this book is accessible and insightful. Topics covered include: the concept of signals based on the sine function; the summation of sine waves as a more complicated signal; the notion of Fourier series and the spectral representation of signals; digital sampling and discrete representation of signals; the discrete Fourier transform and inverse transform; the concept of filtering in the spectral domain; and the idea of filtering outside of the spectral domain, by convolution, and the relationship between the measurement and spectral domains. This book will be valuable for geologists, junior seismic interpreters, software developers, high school and university students, and geophysical professionals seeking a refresher of the basic concepts.

Listen to Michael Burianyk discuss this book in Episode 58 of SEG’s Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.

The Seismic Signal and Its Meaning

André Luiz Romanelli Rosa

The Seismic Signal and Its Meaning

Filling the gap between theoretical literature and the routine activities of geophysicists in the oil industry, The Seismic Signal and Its Meaning is a translation of the second edition of Análise do Sinal Sísmico, published in Portuguese by Sociedade Brasileira de Geofísica (SBGf). For those performing acquisition, processing, and/or interpretation, this book will aid an understanding of how practical problems may have important links to seismic data analysis theory. With an emphasis on providing an objective description of the physical and mathematical aspects that support these links, the rules necessary for robust reservoir characterization are presented. With an extensive development of Gassmann’s (and Biot) theory, the book concentrates on phase and amplitude distortions to the seismic signal, the physical processes that it undergoes, and the interpretation methods to recover rock physics properties. Capturing 30 years of teaching and improvement as a part of Petrobras’ internal courses, the book is a modern treatment, reflecting the many advances that have occurred in geophysics. The book serves as both a text and a reference.

Análise do Sinal Sísmico, the Portuguese version of this book, is available from the Brazilian Geophysical Society.

Introduction to Petroleum Seismology, second edition

Luc T. Ikelle and Lasse Amundsen

Introduction to Petroleum Seismology

This book provides the theoretical and practical foundation for tackling present and future challenges of petroleum seismology especially those related to seismic survey designs, seismic data acquisition, seismic and EM modeling, seismic imaging, microseismicity, and reservoir characterization and monitoring.  All of the chapters from the first edition have been improved and/or expanded. In addition, twelve new chapters have been added. These new chapters expand topics which were only alluded to in the first edition: sparsity representation, sparsity and nonlinear optimization, near-simultaneous multiple-shooting acquisition and processing, nonuniform wavefield sampling, automated modeling, elastic-electromagnetic mathematical equivalences, and microseismicity in the context of hydraulic fracturing. Another major modification in this edition is that each chapter contains analytical problems as well as computational problems. These problems include MatLab codes, which may help readers improve their understanding of and intuition about these materials. The comprehensiveness of this book makes it a suitable text for undergraduate and graduate courses that target geophysicists and engineers as well as a guide and reference work for researchers and professionals in academia and in the petroleum industry.

Seismic Attributes as the Framework for Data Integration Throughout the Oilfield Life Cycle

Kurt J. Marfurt

Seismic Attributes as the Framework for Data Integration Throughout the Oilfield Life Cycle

Useful attributes capture and quantify key components of the seismic amplitude and texture for subsequent integration with well log, microseismic, and production data through either interactive visualization or machine learning. Although both approaches can accelerate and facilitate the interpretation process, they can by no means replace the interpreter. Interpreter “grayware” includes the incorporation and validation of depositional, diagenetic, and tectonic deformation models, the integration of rock physics systematics, and the recognition of unanticipated opportunities and hazards. This book is written to accompany and complement the 2018 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course that provides a rapid overview of how 3D seismic attributes provide a framework for data integration over the life of the oil and gas field. Key concepts are illustrated by example, showing modern workflows based on interactive interpretation and display as well as those aided by machine learning.

High-Resolution Seismic Exploration

Qing-Zhong Li

High-Resolution Seismic Exploration

Capitalizing on knowledge learned over decades and combining underlying theory with practical cases, this book presents a systematic analysis of the issues involved in high-resolution seismic exploration. Translated from the original Chinese edition published in 1993 by Petroleum Industry Press and now updated to reflect contemporary developments, the book is adept at clarifying the objectives and approaches toward better precision in seismic prospecting. It provides innovative views on fundamental concepts including: perspective resolution and perspective S/N; the empirical relationship between compressional velocity (Vp) and absorption coefficient (Q); constructing basin absorption models; understanding sand layer tracking; improving dynamic and static corrections of near-surface effects as well as deconvolution; achieving maximum effective bandwidth of seismic data; and regressive seismic impedance inversion. It is an excellent reference for those involved in seismic prospecting research, data processing, and geologic interpretation, and it is recommended for geoscientists and engineers as well as professors and graduate students.

Basic Geophysics

Enders A. Robinson and Dean Clark

Basic Geophysics

For a thorough comprehension of the field of geophysics, we need to understand its origins. Basic Geophysics by Enders Robinson and Dean Clark takes us on a journey that demonstrates how the achievements of our predecessors have paved the way for our modern science. From the ancient Greeks through the Enlightenment to the greats of the contemporary age, the reasoning behind basic principles is explored and clarified. With that foundation, several advanced topics are examined, including: the 3D wave equation; ray tracing and seismic modeling; reflection, refraction, and diffraction; and WKBJ migration. The successful integration of the historical narrative alongside practical analysis of relevant principles makes this book an excellent resource for both novices and professionals, and all readers will gain insight and appreciation for the seismic theory that underlies modern exploration seismology.

Listen to co-author Dean Clark discuss this book in Episode 25 of SEG’s Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.

Microseismic Monitoring

Vladimir Grechka and Werner M. Heigl

Seismic Inversion

Over the past decade, microseismic monitoring, a technology developed for evaluating completions of wells drilled to produce hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs, has grown increasingly popular among oil and gas companies. Microseismic Monitoring discusses how to process microseismic data, what can and cannot be inferred from such data, and to what level of certainty this might be possible. The narrative of the book follows the passage of seismic waves: from a source triggered by hydraulic fracture stimulation, through hydrocarbon-bearing formations, toward motion sensors. The waves’ characteristics encode the location of their source and its focal mechanism. The analysis of various approaches to harvesting the source-related information from microseismic records has singled out the accuracy of the velocity model, fully accounting for the strong elastic anisotropy of hydraulically fractured shales, as the most critical ingredient for obtaining precise source locations and interpretable moment tensors. The ray theory complemented by its modern extensions, paraxial and Fréchet ray tracing, provides the only practical means available today for building such models. The book is written for geophysicists interested in learning and applying advanced microseismic data-processing techniques.

Listen to Vladimir Grechka and Werner M. Heigl discuss this book in Episode 24 of SEG's Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.

Seismic Inversion

Gerard T. Schuster

Seismic Inversion

This book describes the theory and practice of inverting seismic data for the subsurface rock properties of the earth. The primary application is for inverting reflection and/or transmission data from engineering or exploration surveys, but the methods described also can be used for earthquake studies. Seismic Inversion will be of benefit to scientists and advanced students in engineering, earth sciences, and physics. It is desirable that the reader has some familiarity with certain aspects of numerical computation, such as finite-difference solutions to partial differential equations, numerical linear algebra, and the basic physics of wave propagation. For those not familiar with the terminology and methods of seismic exploration, a brief introduction is provided. To truly understand the nuances of seismic inversion, we have to actively practice what we preach (or teach). Therefore, computational labs are provided for most of the chapters, and some field data labs are given as well.

Listen to Gerard Schuster discuss this book in Episode 19 of SEG’s Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.

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