Introduction to Petroleum Seismology, second edition
Luc T. Ikelle and Lasse Amundsen
This book provides the theoretical and practical foundation for tackling present and future challenges of petroleum seismology especially those related to seismic survey designs, seismic data acquisition, seismic and EM modeling, seismic imaging, microseismicity, and reservoir characterization and monitoring. All of the chapters from the first edition have been improved and/or expanded. In addition, twelve new chapters have been added. These new chapters expand topics which were only alluded to in the first edition: sparsity representation, sparsity and nonlinear optimization, near-simultaneous multiple-shooting acquisition and processing, nonuniform wavefield sampling, automated modeling, elastic-electromagnetic mathematical equivalences, and microseismicity in the context of hydraulic fracturing. Another major modification in this edition is that each chapter contains analytical problems as well as computational problems. These problems include MatLab codes, which may help readers improve their understanding of and intuition about these materials. The comprehensiveness of this book makes it a suitable text for undergraduate and graduate courses that target geophysicists and engineers as well as a guide and reference work for researchers and professionals in academia and in the petroleum industry.
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Table of Contents (70kb PDF)
Seismic Attributes as the Framework for Data Integration Throughout the Oilfield Life Cycle
Kurt J. Marfurt
Useful attributes capture and quantify key components of the seismic amplitude and texture for subsequent integration with well log, microseismic, and production data through either interactive visualization or machine learning. Although both approaches can accelerate and facilitate the interpretation process, they can by no means replace the interpreter. Interpreter “grayware” includes the incorporation and validation of depositional, diagenetic, and tectonic deformation models, the integration of rock physics systematics, and the recognition of unanticipated opportunities and hazards. This book is written to accompany and complement the 2018 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course that provides a rapid overview of how 3D seismic attributes provide a framework for data integration over the life of the oil and gas field. Key concepts are illustrated by example, showing modern workflows based on interactive interpretation and display as well as those aided by machine learning.
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Table of Contents (78kb PDF)
High-Resolution Seismic Exploration
Capitalizing on knowledge learned over decades and combining underlying theory with practical cases, this book presents a systematic analysis of the issues involved in high-resolution seismic exploration. Translated from the original Chinese edition published in 1993 by Petroleum Industry Press and now updated to reflect contemporary developments, the book is adept at clarifying the objectives and approaches toward better precision in seismic prospecting. It provides innovative views on fundamental concepts including: perspective resolution and perspective S/N; the empirical relationship between compressional velocity (Vp) and absorption coefficient (Q); constructing basin absorption models; understanding sand layer tracking; improving dynamic and static corrections of near-surface effects as well as deconvolution; achieving maximum effective bandwidth of seismic data; and regressive seismic impedance inversion. It is an excellent reference for those involved in seismic prospecting research, data processing, and geologic interpretation, and it is recommended for geoscientists and engineers as well as professors and graduate students.
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Table of Contents (618kb PDF)
Enders A. Robinson and Dean Clark
For a thorough comprehension of the field of geophysics, we need to understand its origins. Basic Geophysics by Enders Robinson and Dean Clark takes us on a journey that demonstrates how the achievements of our predecessors have paved the way for our modern science. From the ancient Greeks through the Enlightenment to the greats of the contemporary age, the reasoning behind basic principles is explored and clarified. With that foundation, several advanced topics are examined, including: the 3D wave equation; ray tracing and seismic modeling; reflection, refraction, and diffraction; and WKBJ migration. The successful integration of the historical narrative alongside practical analysis of relevant principles makes this book an excellent resource for both novices and professionals, and all readers will gain insight and appreciation for the seismic theory that underlies modern exploration seismology.
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Table of Contents (22kb PDF)
Listen to co-author Dean Clark discuss this book in Episode 25 of SEG’s Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Vladimir Grechka and Werner M. Heigl
Over the past decade, microseismic monitoring, a technology developed for evaluating completions of wells drilled to produce hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs, has grown increasingly popular among oil and gas companies. Microseismic Monitoring discusses how to process microseismic data, what can and cannot be inferred from such data, and to what level of certainty this might be possible. The narrative of the book follows the passage of seismic waves: from a source triggered by hydraulic fracture stimulation, through hydrocarbon-bearing formations, toward motion sensors. The waves’ characteristics encode the location of their source and its focal mechanism. The analysis of various approaches to harvesting the source-related information from microseismic records has singled out the accuracy of the velocity model, fully accounting for the strong elastic anisotropy of hydraulically fractured shales, as the most critical ingredient for obtaining precise source locations and interpretable moment tensors. The ray theory complemented by its modern extensions, paraxial and Fréchet ray tracing, provides the only practical means available today for building such models. The book is written for geophysicists interested in learning and applying advanced microseismic data-processing techniques.
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Table of Contents (175kb PDF)
Listen to Vladimir Grechka and Werner M. Heigl discuss this book in Episode 24 of SEG's Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Gerard T. Schuster
This book describes the theory and practice of inverting seismic data for the subsurface rock properties of the earth. The primary application is for inverting reflection and/or transmission data from engineering or exploration surveys, but the methods described also can be used for earthquake studies. Seismic Inversion will be of benefit to scientists and advanced students in engineering, earth sciences, and physics. It is desirable that the reader has some familiarity with certain aspects of numerical computation, such as finite-difference solutions to partial differential equations, numerical linear algebra, and the basic physics of wave propagation. For those not familiar with the terminology and methods of seismic exploration, a brief introduction is provided. To truly understand the nuances of seismic inversion, we have to actively practice what we preach (or teach). Therefore, computational labs are provided for most of the chapters, and some field data labs are given as well.
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Table of Contents (52kb PDF)
Listen to Gerard Schuster discuss this book in Episode 19 of SEG’s Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Elements of 3D Seismology, third edition
Christopher L. Liner
Elements of 3D Seismology, third edition (SEG Investigations in Geophysics Series No. 19) is a thorough introduction to the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of 3D seismic data. This third edition is a major update of the second edition. Sections dealing with interpretation have been greatly revised in accordance with improved understanding and availability of data and software. Practice exercises have been added, as well as a 3D seismic survey predesign exercise. Discussions include: conceptual and historical foundations of modern reflection seismology; an overview of seismic wave phenomena in acoustic, elastic, and porous media; acquisition principles for land and marine seismic surveys; methods used to create 2D and 3D seismic images from field data; concepts of dip moveout, prestack migration, and depth migration; concepts and limitations of 3D seismic interpretation for structure, stratigraphy, and rock property estimation; and the interpretation role of attributes, impedance estimation, and AVO. This book is intended as a general text on reflection seismology, including wave propagation, data acquisition, processing, and interpretation and will be of interest to entry-level geophysicists, experts in related fields (geology, petroleum engineering), and experienced geophysicists in one subfield wishing to learn about another (e.g., interpreters wanting to learn about seismic waves or data acquisition).
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Table of Contents (83kb PDF)
Listen to Chris Liner discuss this book in Episode 13 of SEG's Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Seismic Petrophysics in Quantitative Interpretation
Exploration and characterization of conventional and unconventional reservoirs using seismic technologies are among the main activities of upstream technology groups and business units of oil and gas operators. However, these activities frequently encounter difficulties in quantitative seismic interpretation due to remaining confusion and new challenges in the fast developing field of seismic petrophysics. Seismic Petrophysics in Quantitative Interpretation (SEG Investigations in Geophysics Series No. 18) by Lev Vernik shows how seismic interpretation can be made simple and robust by integration of the rock physics principles with seismic and petrophysical attributes bearing on the properties of both conventional (thickness, net/gross, lithology, porosity, permeability, and saturation) and unconventional (thickness, lithology, organic richness, thermal maturity) reservoirs. Practical solutions to existing interpretation problems in rock physics-based amplitude versus offset (AVO) analysis and inversion are addressed in the book to streamline the workflows in subsurface characterization. Although the book is aimed at oil and gas industry professionals and academics concerned with utilization of seismic data in petroleum exploration and production, it could also prove helpful for geotechnical and completion engineers and drillers seeking to better understand how seismic and sonic data can be more thoroughly utilized.
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Table of Contents (55kb PDF)
Listen to Lev Vernik discuss this book in Episode 6 of SEG's Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Handbook of Poststack Seismic Attributes
Arthur E. Barnes
The Handbook of Poststack Seismic Attributes (SEG Geophysical References Series No. 21) is a general reference for poststack seismic attributes. It discusses their theory, meaning, computation, and application, with the goal of improving understanding so that seismic attributes can be applied more effectively. The chapters of the book build upon each other and progress from basic attributes to more involved methods. The book introduces the ideas that underlie seismic attributes and reviews their history from their origins to current developments. It examines attribute maps and interval statistics; complex trace attributes; 3D attributes that quantify aspects of geologic structure and stratigraphy, primarily dip, azimuth, curvature, reflection spacing, and parallelism; seismic discontinuity attributes derived through variances or differences; spectral decomposition, thin-bed analysis, and waveform classification; the two poststack methods that purportedly record rock properties — relative acoustic impedance through recursive inversion, and Q estimation through spectral ratioing; and multiattribute analysis through volume blending, cross-plotting, principal component analysis, and unsupervised classification. The book ends with an overview of how seismic attributes aid data interpretation and discusses bright spots, frequency shadows, faults, channels, diapirs, and data reconnaissance. A glossary provides definitions of seismic attributes and methods, and appendices provide background mathematics. The book is intended for reflection seismologists engaged in petroleum exploration, including seismic data interpreters, data processors, researchers, and students.
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Table of Contents (25kb PDF)
3C Seismic and VSP: Converted waves and vector wavefield applications
3C seismic applications provide enhanced rock property characterization of the reservoir that can complement P-wave methods. Continued interest in converted P- to S-waves (PS-waves) and vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) has resulted in the steady development of advanced vector wavefield techniques. PS-wave images along with VSP data can be used to help P-wave interpretation of structure in gas obscured zones, of elastic and fluid properties for lithology discrimination from S-wave impedance and density inversion in unconventional reservoirs, and of fracture characterization and stress monitoring from S-wave birefringence (splitting) analysis. The book, which accompanies the 2016 SEG Distinguished Instructor Short Course, presents an overview of 3C seismic theory and practical application: from fundamentals of PS-waves and VSPs, through to acquisition and processing including interpretation techniques. The emphasis is on unique aspects of vector wavefields, anisotropy, and the important relationships that unify S-waves and P-waves. Various applications and case studies demonstrate image benefits from PS-waves, elastic properties and fluid discrimination from joint inversion of amplitude variations with offset/angle (AVO/A), and VSP methods for anisotropic velocity model building and improved reservoir imaging. The book will be of interest to geophysicists, geologists, and engineers, especially those involved with or considering the use of AVO/A inversion, fracture/stress characterization analyses, or interpretation in gas-obscured reservoirs.
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Table of Contents (59kb PDF)
Listen to James Gaiser discuss this book in Episode 3 of SEG's Seismic Soundoff, in-depth conversations in applied geophysics.
Classical and Modern Diffraction Theory
Edited by Kamill Klem-Musatov, Henning C. Hoeber, Tijmen J. Moser, and Michael A. Pelissier
Providing geophysicists with an in-depth understanding of the theoretical and applied background for the seismic diffraction method, Classical and Modern Diffraction Theory covers the history and foundations of the classical theory and the key elements of the modern diffraction theory. Edited by Kamill Klem-Musatov, Henning C. Hoeber, Tijmen J. Moser, and Michael A. Pelissier, chapters include an overview and a historical review of classical theory, a summary of the experimental results illustrating this theory, and key principles of the modern theory of diffraction; the early cornerstones of classical diffraction theory, starting from its inception in the 17th century and an extensive introduction to reprinted works of Grimaldi, Huygens, and Young; details of the classical theory of diffractions as developed in the 19th century and reprinted works of Fresnel, Green, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, and Rayleigh; and the cornerstones of the modern theory including Keller’s geometrical theory of diffraction, boundary-layer theory, and super-resolution. Appendices on the Cornu spiral and Babinet’s principle are also included.
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Table of Contents (27kb PDF)
Edited by Kamill Klem-Musatov, Henning C. Hoeber, Tijmen J. Moser, and Michael A. Pelissier
The use of diffraction imaging to complement the seismic reflection method is rapidly gaining momentum in the oil and gas industry. As the industry moves toward exploiting smaller and more complex conventional reservoirs and extensive new unconventional resource plays, the application of the seismic diffraction method to image sub-wavelength features such as small-scale faults, fractures and stratigraphic pinchouts is expected to increase dramatically over the next few years. Edited by Kamill Klem-Musatov, Henning C. Hoeber, Tijmen J. Moser, and Michael A. Pelissier, Seismic Diffraction covers seismic diffraction theory, modeling, observation, and imaging. Papers and discussion include an overview of seismic diffractions, including classic papers which introduced the potential of diffraction phenomena in seismic processing; papers on the forward modeling of seismic diffractions, with an emphasis on the theoretical principles; papers which describe techniques for diffraction mathematical modeling as well as laboratory experiments for the physical modeling of diffractions; key papers dealing with the observation of seismic diffractions, in near-surface-, reservoir-, as well as crustal studies; and key papers on diffraction imaging.
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Table of Contents (68kb PDF)
Interpreter Sam Carries On
Donald A. Herron
Interpreter Sam Carries On (SEG Geophysical Monograph Series No. 20) is a collection of the seventh through the fourteenth years of “Interpreter Sam” columns from The Leading Edge. It “carries on” with the stories of the fictitious Interpreter Sam, the sometimes hero, sometimes victim, and most often innocent bystander in circumstances typical of a seismic interpreter’s career in the oil and gas industry. As in the first Interpreter Sam volume, SEG Geophysical Monograph Series No. 15, each chapter of the book begins with a caricature of Sam (and others) created by the artist David Carman. In the epilogue, Sam presents three verses, based on the works of three well-known poets but adapted to the modern interpretation environment. This book extends the storytelling tradition of its predecessor; paraphrasing the noted paleontologist and historian of nature Stephen Jay Gould, it retells actual events as stories with the intent to interest and to instruct, and as such is appropriate for readers of all persuasions.
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Table of Contents (80kb PDF)
52 Things You Should Know About Rock Physics
Edited by Matt Hall and Evan Bianco
The popular geoscience series returns with another volume on exploration geophysics. This time the 46 authors — including seasoned scientists and newcomers to the field — tackle the more quantitative side of the field. There is something for every geoscientist here, especially anyone involved in petroleum, mining, or geothermal exploration.
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Engineering Seismology with Applications to Geotechnical Engineering
The scope of engineering seismology includes geotechnical site investigations for buildings and engineering infrastructures, such as dams, levees, bridges, and tunnels, landslide and active-fault investigations, seismic microzonation, and geophysical investigations of historic buildings. These projects require multidisciplinary participation by the geologist, geophysicist, and geotechnical and earthquake engineers. A key objective of this book (SEG Investigations in Geophysics Series No. 17) by Öz Yilmaz is to encourage the specialists from these disciplines to apply the seismic method to solve the many challenging engineering problems they face. The broader scope of engineering seismology also includes exploration of earth resources, including groundwater exploration, coal and mineral exploration, and geothermal exploration. While focusing on the application of the seismic method to geotechnical site investigations, this book includes many case studies in all of the applications of engineering seismology. Chapters include: seismic waves, seismic modeling of the soil column, site characterization, landslide investigations, active fault investigations, seismic microzonation, geophysical investigations of historic buildings, and exploration of earth resources.
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Table of Contents (27kb PDF)