Stimulations of rocks by fluid injections (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) belong to a standard reservoir-development practice. Productions of shale oil, shale gas, heavy oil, and geothermal energy require broad applications of this technology. Production of conventional hydrocarbons, carbon sequestration, saltwater disposal and development of geological gas storages require massive fluid operations in the underground as well. The fact that fluid injections and productions can induce seismicity has been well-established for several decades. Understanding and monitoring of fluid-induced seismicity is necessary for hydraulic characterization of reservoirs, for assessments of reservoir stimulation results and for controlling the seismic risk of underground fluid injections and productions. The course provides systematic quantitative rock-physical and geomechanical fundamentals of these aspects.
Prerequisites (Knowledge/Experience/Education required)
Graduated (bachelor level) in geology, or geophysics, or physics, or mathematics, or petroleum engineering, or geosciences. The course is targeted to Geophysicists, Geologists, Petrophysicists, Reservoir Engineers, Graduate and Postgraduate Students, Researchers, Interpreters.
- Rock physics and geomechanics of induced seismicity:
- Seismic waves in isotropic and anisotropic rocks
- Poroelastic phenomena
- Stress, pore pressure, and rock failure
- Geomechanics of earthquakes
- The method of microseismic monitoring:
- Observation systems, detection, and location of events
- Earthquakes as sources of seismic waves: moment and potency tensors
- Microseismic wavefields and imaging
- Seismicity, pressure diffusion, and hydraulic fracturing:
- Modeling of fluid-induced seismicity
- Seismicity during a fluid injection
- Seismicity after a termination of a fluid injection
- Hydraulic properties of reservoirs and induced seismicity
- Hydraulic fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs
- Seismicity induced by hydraulic fracturing
- Non-linear pore pressure diffusion and seismicity in unconventional reservoirs
- Hazard of induced seismicity:
- Rates and magnitudes of fluid-induced earthquakes
- Seismogenic index
- Statistics of large magnitudes
- Seismicity induced by hydrocarbon production
- Seismicity induced by saltwater disposal
- The learner will be able to define the potential of microseismic monitoring for a particular task of the characterization of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs.
- The learner will be able to use and discuss main instruments of the quantitative interpretation of microseismic data.
- The learner will be able to interpret main features of microseismic data.
- The learner will be able to discuss and control the quality of microseismic data.
- The learner will be able to interpret the mechanisms of microseismic events.
- The learner will be able to use and discuss the following concepts: poroelasticity, reservoir properties, earthquake physical characteristics, microseismic event location principles, physics and modeling of hydraulic fracturing.
- The learner will be able to use and discuss main instruments for assessment of the hazard of induced seismicity.
Serge A. Shapiro